Prior to this study MIT was thought to be the compound responsible for the narcotic effects of this plant. Red Vein Horn Kratom La Verne in the early part of this study basic in vitro toxicology revealed that Red Vein Horn Kratom La Verne MSE and MIT have dose dependant toxicity to several human cell lines and the SH-SY5Y cell was the most sensitive. This is not surprising as the central nervous system was pharmacologically determined as the target system for the biological effects of this plant thus a toxicity response might be anticipated in neuronal cells.
As Red Vein Horn Kratom La Verne translocation of phosphatidylserine to the outer plasma membrane indicates early apoptotic cell death Annexin V staining was used as a marker for apoptotic cells (van Engeland 1998). The cells become reactive with Annexin V prior to the loss of the ability of
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the plasma membrane to exclude 7-AAD staining and thus best kratom kratom thai super premium leaves enables detection of unaffected (live) cells early apoptotic necrotic and late apoptotic cells (Darynkiewicz et al 2001). Each sample was analysed using Flow Jo 8. Briefly the cell populations were gated according to four different quadrants (Fig. The first bottom left quadrant (Q1) represent the live cells which exclude both stains (Annexin V and 7-AAD) the top left quadrant (Q2) represent the Annexin V positive cells indicating early apoptosis population the top right quadrant (Q3) represents the Annexin V and 7-AAD positive cell population indicating necrosis and the last bottom right quadrant (Q4) represents the 7-AAD positive cell population indicating late stage of apoptosis population.
Chem Res Toxicol. Morphological and biochemical aspects of apoptosis oncosis and necrosis. Use of kratom herbal remedy flow and laser-scanning cytometry in analysis of cell death. In: Methods in Cell Biology Vol 66 Chapter 4.
- Programmed cell death or apoptosis follows multiple pathways and includes intracellular signalling which signal the activation of a cysteine protease family the caspases (Cysteinyl-aspatarte-specific proteinases) (Alnemri et al 1996) which play a pivotal role in initiation and execution of apoptosis induced by various stimuli (Fig
- Cytotoxicity of Extract of Malaysian Mitragyna Speciosa Korth and I
- The DNA profiles were determined using Modfit LT cell cycle analysis software (Verity Software Topsham ME)