were representatives of duplicate experiments. P21 levels of MIT treated SH-SY5Y cells at different time points (6 12 24 and 48 hr). Maeng Da Kratom Leaf Effects m for MSE and MIT respectively (Chapter 2).
In view of these findings it is likely that the involvement of other chemicals that are present in the MSE most probably explained why metabolic activation by S9 increased MSE toxicity. Interestingly whilst S9 did not potentiate MIT toxicity prolonged exposure of the cells to MIT did appear to induce dose-dependant toxicity. The reason for this is not entirely clear. In summary MSE and MIT do not appear to be genotoxic in MLA.
Whether the cell death was accompanied by DNA damage was unknown. To date there is no information or report on cancer or tumour incidence in humans consuming Mitragyna speciosa Korth leaves. It is important to find out whether MSE and MIT cytotoxicity is accompanied by DNA damage. This chapter examines whether MSE or MIT have genotoxic potential and thereby the potential for carcinogenicity.
Bars are SEM of three experiments. MSE combinations and SH-SY5Y cells. These experiments were super premium indonesian kratom capsules done in collaboration with Thomas Randall (ICL). SH-SY5Y cells treated with chloroform in ethanol vehicle (Fig. If chloroform contamination of MSE contributed to the toxicity of MSE then addition or synergistic Maeng Da Kratom Leaf Effects cytotoxicity would be expected. M CHCl3) (Fig. This result suggests that chloroform did not enhance MSE-dependant cytotoxicity.
MSE due to substantal toxicity effects even at 24 hr time point. This finding has positive correlations with the result from the trypan blue experiment from chapter 2 (Fig 2. These current experiments suggest that cell cycle arrest could be an associated event for the toxicity premium indonesian kratom effects seen.
M ketoconazole (KT) a CYP 3A4 inhibitor (Gibbs et al. M 3-amino-124-triazole (ATZ) a CYP2E1 inhibitor (Koop 1990). C in 5% CO2).
Ethnopharmacology of kratom and the Mitragyna alkaloids. Caspase-independent pathways of hair cell death induced by kanamycin in vivo. Cell Death Diff.
Despite having a crucial role for cellular energy metabolism mitochondria are also known to kratom plant drug be a key player in cell death.
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DIABLO in completing the cell death cascade. Mitochndria have also been shown as an important factor in other caspase-independant apoptosis.
The cultures were further incubated for 24 hours. Day 2 post-culture treatment (presence and absence of S9 cultures) Cell count was performed and the suspension growth (SG) and relative suspension growth (RSG) were calculated for each culture. SG) for 2 days expression period were calculated and SG of each test cultures were compared to control. SG (mean control SG) X 100 Based on the RSG value obtained the concentrations chosen for the
plating (viability assessment and mutant frequency) includes at least one dose level with an RSG value of 10-20% a no effect dose and a minimum of two further doses between this range of bali vs malay kratom concentrations.