< kratom quit p>Cytological examination of SH-SY5Y cells after 48 hr treatment with MSE (24 hr treatment and 24 hr doubling time). Kratom Tea No Nausea Otis each photo is representative of 3 similar experiments with the same treatment concentration stained with WrightGiemsa staining. Magnification (x 1000). Cytological examination of HEK-293 cells after 48 hr treatment with MSE (24 hr treatment and 24 hr doubling time). Each photo is representative of 3 similar experiment with the same treatment concentration stained with WrightGiemsa staining. Necrotic cells were noted based on the lysis of membrane appearance and swelling of cells with reduced staining intensity compared to control and low dose groups. Cytological examination of MCL-5 cells after 24 hr treatment with MSE.
The caspase-8 and caspase-9 colorimetric assays purchased from Invitrogen U. IETD and LEHD respectively. These assays were carried out according to manufacturer instructions. MSE for 4 hr and 24 hr incubation time points.
The basic toxicology data established
in the previous chapter has informed us on the potential kratom withdrawal body aches cytotoxicity of MSE and MIT on several human cell lines which generally shows cytotoxicity with high dose. The lethal effect of the extract and major alkaloid (MIT) on the cells examined prompted the question whether cell death was accompanied by DNA damage. DNA damage as a result of endogenous sources (cellular metabolic processes) or exogenous sources (environmental factors such as chemical insult) could lead to reversible or irreversible genetic change. Based on the long kratom tea chicago term use of this plant by humans testing for its genotoxic potential using mammalian cells was thought to be more appropriate than conventional first tier testing for gene mutation in bacteria. In fact the Kratom Tea No Nausea Otis primary first tier bacterial genetic toxicology assay the Ames Salmonella assay is incapable of detecting large scale deletion or recombination Kratom Tea No Nausea Otis events of the mutations. Such events are more common in mammalian cell mutagenesis (Clive et al 1990). Mitchell et al 1997).